Geoinformatics is one of the powerful technologies of science that support and addresses the complex social and environmental challenges through data analysis. It collects and consolidate the data and then analyse it through computation and geo-visualization. The term ‘Geoinformatics’ is a combination of two words Geology and Informatics. The Geoinformatics is very broad term because it comprises of various subjects like remote sensing, Global positioning system, Geographic information system, cartography, hydrology, climatology, Aerial photography, photogrammetry etc. this all technologies are required in Precision Agriculture for proper decision making in addition of fertilizers, Soil Mapping and other management practices, from remote sensing identification of pests and diseases can be done easily.
Principle of Geoinformatics
a. Data Capture
Data sources are mainly obtained through manual digitization, scanning of aerial photographs or obtaining from paper maps and existing digital data sets.
b. Database Management and Update
Data security, data integrity, and data storage and retrieval, and data maintenance abilities.
c. Geographic Analysis
The collected information is analysed and interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively.
d. Preparing Result
One of the most exciting aspects of GIS technology is results can be prepared in different and information can be presented.
Uses in Agriculture
Geoinformatics and its various technologies has led for development of Precision agriculture or farming in this 21st century. Many farmers can be benefited through this integration of technologies like GIS, GPS and Renote sensing. Technologies of Geoinformatics system are as follows
Global Positioning System
GPS was generally originated from Military but later it is used in many aspects. This is a satellite based system which is used locate positions on Earth. It provides continuous location data with real-time and 3-dimensional positioning around worldwide in any weather condition. GPS in agriculture is utilized mainly for Yield mapping i.e. to get total output from cultivated land and another use is for variable rate fertilizer or pesticide application. It is necessary in finding out the exact location in the field to evaluate the spatial variability and site-specific application of the inputs.
Remote sensing is a technology which is used to get information about an object from measurements, made at distance, without coming into physical contact with the objects. Remote sensing is used for Crop Identification through which we can estimate the percentage of vegetation cover, predict crop yield, Identifying Stressed Plants, Detection of diseases and diagnosis of Plant Diseases, Land Cover Mapping it is one of the important applications of remote sensing as Land cover matches to the physical condition of the ground surface, for example, forest, grassland etc.
Geographic Information System
GIS is a data storage system, which is used for analysing and managing spatial data through which we can relate crop productivity and other agronomic factors. Analysed information is displayed in maps which allow us for better understanding interactions among yield, fertility, pests, weeds and decision-making can be made easily with the help of such spatial relationships.
Geoinformatics is important typical technology which is necessary for Agriculture in decision making of management practices different components of Geoinformatics helps in Digital Mapping, yield estimation, cover coverage, detection of pests and diseases without getting into contact of crop or object and helps us to find out exact location and differentiation between two or more crops. Improvements in remote sensing technology with low cost of sensors is now allowing widespread use for many farmers in farming equipment. With help of these sensors we can identify in which particular area fertilizer or pesticide is required, reducing the amount of chemicals used and as a result reduction in the cost of management practices, as well as protecting the environment. With help of both GPS and RS a technology called Variable rate Applicator which is used for application fertilizer at right time and right place avoiding overdose age and applies at right location.